Friday, March 22, 2013

De la ley Sinde a una mala ley Lassalle

El gobierno Rajoy aprueba la ley Lassalle, el anteproyecto de reforma de la Ley de Propiedad intelectual que sustituye a la contestada y criticada ley Sinde. Mejora algunos aspectos y otros los empeora, pero sobre todo pierde una oportunidad para repensar la propiedad intelectual y los derechos de autor en la era digital y con más consenso de todos. La enorme contestación de casi todos los sectores augura una ley frágil y caduca antes de nacer porque no recoge algunos elementos clave para el negocio y el consumo digital.

Según el texto conocido hasta ahora, la propuesta empeora algunos derechos como la copia privada (ahora sólo temporal y más restrictiva) y sanciona un canon digital que pagan todos los ciudadanos, más injusto que el anterior.
Además reduce el derecho de cita en la educación al excluir a los libros de texto y obliga a las universidades a pagar un canon por los materiales de la enseñanza que amplía los actuales.

Entre las mejoras está el mayor control y supervisión de las sociedades de gestión de derechos de autor, obligadas a mayor transparencia en su actividad, para evitar escándalos como el de la SGAE.
La supervisión de las tarifas y licencias de derechos de autor trata de evitar el abuso actual de las gestoras, pero no plantea un mercado dinámico, abierto y transparente. La regulación de tarifas no garantiza una oferta más adecuada si no se hace por un organismo autónomo y con criterios de mercado y promoción de nuevos negocios. Una supervisión para la que sería necesario una autoridad de la competencia independiente, como la Comisión del Mercado de las Telecomunicaciones o el fenecido Consejo Audiovisual (CEMA), no un organismo dependiente del Ministerio de Educación y Cultura.

La ley Lassalle mejora la persecución contra las webs de descargas no autorizadas y permite perseguir los enlaces aunque los contenidos estén alojados por otras páginas y servidores cuando hay elementos objetivos de que se dedican a difundir y comercializar contenidos protegidos y cuya difusión no está autorizada.
Entre las novedades destacan las herramientas para cortar el negocio de las descargas. La intención es perseguir el dinero, no a la gente, bloqueando la publicidad y los pagos. Para que esa medida sea efectiva debería adoptarse una interpretación liberal de la doctrina de first sale o primera venta (como la que acaba de efectuar el Tribunal Supremo de Estados Unidos).
De esa forma se diferenciarían las copias no autorizadas de las licencias de uso y permitirá cobrar una licencia universal para todas las copias. Un mercado secundario para las descargas no autorizadas que permita cobrar a quienes las distribuyan con el fin de recuperar ingresos para los autores y acercar el mercado irregular al comercial.
Mejor cobrar derechos de las descargas que seguir persiguiendo lo imparable y enredándose en procesos administrativos y judiciales que no impulsan la creación de un mercado legal más atractivo ni cambian los hábitos de muchos internautas.
La intención de bloquear la publicidad en las webs de descargas es bastante inútil tal como funciona el mercado de la publicidad digital, con muchos mayoristas, contratación indirecta y automatizada (el que más crece), sin relación directa entre anunciantes y soportes, como explica Julio Alonso.

Los buscadores, la cita y los enlaces privados o sin ánimo de distribución masiva o intencionada de descargas no autorizadas quedan fuera de la persecución de la Comisión de la Propiedad Intelectual. A pesar de las excepciones, el problema es de garantías.
La Sección Segunda de la Comisión de la Propiedad Intelectual sustituye la garantía de los jueces por un procedimiento administrativo. Los integrantes de la comisión pertenecen a cuatro ministerios (Educación y Cultura, Economía, Industria y Presidencia), sin representantes de los consumidores ni del sector, pero sin constituirse como una autoridad independiente, como menciono arriba.
Las garantías, los derechos y la interpretación de una ley con muchas lagunas queda en manos del poder ejecutivo. Un nuevo error y una erosión de derechos cuando se puede recabar información de las operadoras de telecomunicaciones sobre las webs y páginas denunciadas, y cuando los procedimientos de sanción y defensa no son claros y garantistas.

La reforma de la propiedad intelectual aún tiene recorrido en el Congreso, pero no hay muchas esperanzas de mejora sustancial cuando se analizan las posiciones pasadas de los grupos políticos. Como en tantos otros temas, la realidad, la audiencia y la evolución del negocio va mucho más rápido que las leyes.

88 comments:

  1. Sigo pensando que la única solución es la llegada masiva de operadores de contenidos bajo demanda ( tipo Netflix ) con precios ajustados, muy ajustados, tanto como desincentivar la búsqueda en canales alternativos. Me encanta la tarifa de Netflix en USA, es alucinante y no digamos ya de su amplio catálogo. Tal como he leído por ahí, parece que la industria cultural patria prefiere el suicidio colectivo para obtener leyes represivas y ganar mamandurrias, antes que ponerse las pilas y hacer ya de forma inmediata verdadera cultura de negocio digital. La piratería no es más que un síntoma del verdadero problema: la ausencia de auténticos contenidos digitales competitivos.

    Los políticos, luego se quejan de la desafección que les muestra la gente. Yo ya no espero nada bueno de ellos. A mí, no me representan. Esta ley es sólo censura, no hay alternativa, comienzo mi boicot particular al escaso( por la crisis) consumo de pago de bienes culturales que realizo.

    Saludos.

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